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Windows 10 is a major release of Microsoft ‘s Windows NT operating system. It is the direct successor to Windows 8. It was released to manufacturing on July 15, , and later to retail on July 29, Windows 10 receives new builds on an ongoing basis, which are available at no additional cost to users, in addition to additional test builds of Windows 10, which are available to Windows Insiders.
Devices in enterprise environments can receive these updates at a slower pace, or use long-term support milestones that only receive critical updates, such as security patches , over their ten-year lifespan of extended support. Windows 10 received generally positive reviews upon its original release. Critics praised Microsoft’s decision to provide the desktop-oriented interface in line with previous versions of Windows, contrasting the tablet-oriented approach of Windows 8, although Windows 10’s touch-oriented user interface mode was criticized for containing regressions upon the touch-oriented interface of its predecessor.
Critics also praised the improvements to Windows 10’s bundled software over Windows 8. However, media outlets have been critical of the changes to operating system behaviors, including mandatory update installation, privacy concerns over data collection performed by the OS for Microsoft and its partners, and adware -like tactics used to promote the operating system on its release.
Microsoft initially aimed to have Windows 10 installed on over one billion devices within three years of its release;  that goal was ultimately reached almost five years after release on March 16, On June 24, , Microsoft announced Windows 10’s successor, Windows 11 , which was released on October 5, In December , technology writer Mary Jo Foley reported that Microsoft was working on an update to Windows 8 codenamed “Threshold”, after a planet in its Halo franchise.
She also stated that one of the goals for Threshold was to create a unified application platform and development toolkit for Windows, Windows Phone and Xbox One which all use a similar kernel based on Windows NT. The new Start menu takes after Windows 7 ‘s design by using only a portion of the screen and including a Windows 7-style application listing in the first column. The second column displays Windows 8-style app tiles. Myerson said that these changes would occur in a future update, but did not elaborate.
Windows Phone 8. Screenshots of a Windows build purported to be Threshold were leaked in July , showing the previously presented Start menu and windowed Windows Store apps,  followed by a further screenshot of a build identifying itself as “Windows Technical Preview”, numbered , in September , showing a new virtual desktop system, a notification center, and a new File Explorer icon.
On September 30, , Microsoft officially announced that Threshold would be unveiled during a media event as Windows Myerson said that Windows 10 would be Microsoft’s “most comprehensive platform ever”, providing a single, unified platform for desktop and laptop computers, tablets , smartphones, and all-in-one devices. In regards to Microsoft naming the new operating system Windows 10 instead of Windows 9, Terry Myerson said that “based on the product that’s coming, and just how different our approach will be overall, it wouldn’t be right to call it Windows 9.
We’re trying to create one platform, one eco-system that unites as many of the devices from the small embedded Internet of Things, through tablets, through phones, through PCs and, ultimately, into the Xbox.
Further details surrounding Windows 10’s consumer-oriented features were presented during another media event held on January 21, , entitled “Windows The Next Chapter”. Additional developer-oriented details surrounding the ” Universal Windows Platform ” concept were revealed and discussed during Microsoft’s Build developers’ conference.
Among them were the unveiling of “Islandwood”, which provides a middleware toolchain for compiling Objective-C -based software particularly iOS to run as universal apps on Windows 10 and Windows 10 Mobile. A port of Candy Crush Saga made using the toolkit, which shared much of its code with the iOS version, was demonstrated, alongside the announcement that the King -developed game would be bundled with Windows 10 at launch. At the Ignite conference , Microsoft employee Jerry Nixon stated that Windows 10 would be the “last version of Windows”, a statement that Microsoft confirmed was “reflective” of its view of the operating system being a “service” with new versions and updates to be released over time.
On June 1, , Microsoft announced that Windows 10 would be released on July 29, The commercials focused on the tagline “A more human way to do”, emphasizing new features and technologies supported by Windows 10 that sought to provide a more “personal” experience to users.
Windows 10 makes its user experience and functionality more consistent between different classes of device and addresses most of the shortcomings in the user interface that were introduced in Windows 8.
Windows 10 supports universal apps , an expansion of the Metro-style first introduced in Windows 8. Windows 10 also introduced the Microsoft Edge web browser , a virtual desktop system, a window and desktop management feature called Task View , support for fingerprint and face recognition login, new security features for enterprise environments, and DirectX Windows apps share code across platforms, have responsive designs that adapt to the needs of the device and available inputs, can synchronize data between Windows 10 devices including notifications, credentials, and allowing cross-platform multiplayer for games , and are distributed through the Microsoft Store rebranded from Windows Store since September The ARM version of Windows 10 allows running applications for x86 processors through bit software emulation.
On Windows 10, Microsoft Store serves as a unified storefront for apps, video content, and eBooks. Desktop software distributed through Windows Store is packaged using the App-V system to allow sandboxing. A new iteration of the Start menu is used on the Windows 10 desktop, with a list of places and other options on the left side, and tiles representing applications on the right. The menu can be resized, and expanded into a full-screen display, which is the default option in Tablet mode.
When a window is snapped to one side of the screen, Task View appears and the user is prompted to choose a second window to fill the unused side of the screen called “Snap Assist”. Charms have been removed; their functionality in universal apps is accessed from an App commands menu on their title bar. It is accessed by clicking an icon in the notification area, or dragging from the right of the screen. Notifications can be synced between multiple devices.
Windows 10 is designed to adapt its user interface based on the type of device being used and available input methods. It offers two separate user interface modes: a user interface optimized for mouse and keyboard, and a “Tablet mode” designed for touchscreens.
Users can toggle between these two modes at any time, and Windows can prompt or automatically switch when certain events occur, such as disabling Tablet mode on a tablet if a keyboard or mouse is plugged in, or when a 2-in-1 PC is switched to its laptop state.
In Tablet mode, programs default to a maximized view, and the taskbar contains a back button and hides buttons for opened or pinned programs by default; Task View is used instead to switch between programs. The full screen Start menu is used in this mode, similarly to Windows 8, but scrolls vertically instead of horizontally. Windows 10 incorporates multi-factor authentication technology based upon standards developed by the FIDO Alliance.
Devices with supported cameras requiring infrared illumination, such as Intel RealSense allow users to log in with iris or face recognition , similarly to Kinect.
Devices with supported readers allow users to log in through fingerprint recognition. Support was also added for palm-vein scanning through a partnership with Fujitsu in February In , researchers demonstrated that Windows Hello could be bypassed on fully-updated Windows 10 version with a color printout of a person’s picture taken with an IR camera.
However, a PIN is not a simpler password. While passwords are transmitted to domain controllers , PINs are not.
They are tied to one device, and if compromised, only one device is affected. As such, the authentication token transmitted to the server is harder to crack. In addition, whereas weak passwords may be broken via rainbow tables , TPM causes the much-simpler Windows PINs to be resilient to brute-force attacks. When Windows 10 was first introduced, multi-factor authentication was provided by two components: Windows Hello and Passport not to be confused with the Passport platform of Later, Passport was merged into Windows Hello.
Device Guard is designed to protect against zero-day exploits , and runs inside a hypervisor so that its operation remains separated from the operating system itself. Other features such as word wrap and transparency were also added. These functions can be disabled to revert to the legacy console if needed. The Anniversary Update added Windows Subsystem for Linux WSL , which allows the installation of a user space environment from a supported Linux distribution that runs natively on Windows.
The subsystem translates Linux system calls to those of the Windows NT kernel only claims full system call compatibility as of WSL 2, included in a later Windows update. The environment can execute the Bash shell and bit command-line programs WSL 2 also supports bit Linux programs and graphics, assuming supporting software installed,  and GPUs support for other uses . Windows applications cannot be executed from the Linux environment, and vice versa.
To reduce the storage footprint of the operating system, Windows 10 automatically compresses system files. The system can reduce the storage footprint of Windows by approximately 1. The level of compression used is dependent on a performance assessment performed during installations or by OEMs , which tests how much compression can be used without harming operating system performance. Furthermore, the Refresh and Reset functions use runtime system files instead, making a separate recovery partition redundant, allowing patches and updates to remain installed following the operation, and further reducing the amount of space required for Windows 10 by up to 12 GB.
Windows 10 introduces Microsoft Edge , a new default web browser. It initially featured a new standards -compliant rendering engine derived from Trident , and also includes annotation tools and integration with other Microsoft platforms present within Windows Every Windows 10 version from 20H2, which was released on October 20, , will come with the new version of the browser preinstalled.
Windows 10 incorporates a universal search box located alongside the Start and Task View buttons, which can be hidden or condensed into a single button.
Many of its features are a direct carryover from Windows Phone, including integration with Bing , setting reminders, a Notebook feature for managing personal information, as well as searching for files, playing music, launching applications and setting reminders or sending emails. Microsoft Family Safety is replaced by Microsoft Family, a parental controls system that applies across Windows platforms and Microsoft online services.
Users can create a designated family, and monitor and restrict the actions of users designated as children, such as access to websites, enforcing age ratings on Microsoft Store purchases, and other restrictions.
The service can also send weekly e-mail reports to parents detailing a child’s computer usage. Credentials are stored in an encrypted form on Microsoft servers and sent to the devices of the selected contacts. Passwords are not viewable by the guest user, and the guest user is not allowed to access other computers or devices on the network.
Wi-Fi Sense is not usable on Universal calling and messaging apps for Windows 10 are built in as of the November update: Messaging, Skype Video, and Phone. These offer built-in alternatives to the Skype download and sync with Windows 10 Mobile. Windows 10 provides greater integration with the Xbox ecosystem. Xbox SmartGlass is succeeded by the Xbox Console Companion formerly the Xbox app , which allows users to browse their game library including both PC and Xbox console games , and Game DVR is also available using a keyboard shortcut , allowing users to save the last 30 seconds of gameplay as a video that can be shared to Xbox Live, OneDrive, or elsewhere.
Windows 10 adds native game recording and screenshot capture ability using the newly introduced Game Bar. Users can also have the OS continuously record gameplay in the background, which then allows the user to save the last few moments of gameplay to the storage device.
Windows 10 adds three new default typefaces compared to Windows 8, but removes dozens of others. The removed typefaces are available in supplemental packs and may be added manually over a non-metered internet connection. Windows 10 is available in five main editions for personal computing devices; the Home and Pro editions of which are sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers.
Home is aimed at home users, while Pro is aimed at power users and small businesses. Each edition of Windows 10 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and add additional features oriented towards their market segments; for example, Pro adds additional networking and security features such as BitLocker , Device Guard, Windows Update for Business, and the ability to join a domain.
Enterprise and Education, the other editions, contain additional features aimed towards business environments, and are only available through volume licensing. As part of Microsoft’s unification strategies, Windows products that are based on Windows 10’s common platform but meant for specialized platforms are marketed as editions of the operating system, rather than as separate product lines.
An updated version of Microsoft’s Windows Phone operating system for smartphones, and also tablets, was branded as Windows 10 Mobile. On May 2, , Microsoft unveiled Windows 10 S referred to in leaks as Windows 10 Cloud , a feature-limited edition of Windows 10 which was designed primarily for devices in the education market competing, in particular, with Chrome OS netbooks , such as the Surface Laptop that Microsoft also unveiled at this time.
The OS restricts software installation to applications obtained from Microsoft Store; the device may be upgraded to Windows 10 Pro for a fee to enable unrestricted software installation. As a time-limited promotion, Microsoft stated that this upgrade would be free on the Surface Laptop until March 31, A public beta program for Windows 10 known as the Windows Insider Program began with the first publicly available preview release on October 1,
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